Republic day is celebrated on 26th January every year to honor the date on which the Constitution of India was came into effect, replacing the Government of India Act(1935) as the governing document of India and thus, turning the nation into a newly formed republic.
Constitution of India
Some provision of the Constitution pertaining to citizenship, elections, provisional parliament, temporary and transitional provisions and short title contained in different Articles came into force on 26th November 1949 itself. The remaining provision(major) came into force on 26th January.
It was on this day in 1930 that Purna Swaraj day was celebrated, following the resolution of the Lahore session of the INC as opposed to the Dominion status offered by the British Regime.
A constituent Assembly was formed to make the Constitution for India, even though they represent every part and each section of the society, there were some people who were not in favor of that. They criticize the Constitution as follows:
- The member of constituent assembly were not directly elected by the people on the basis of universal adult franchise.
- The constituent assembly was created by the proposal of he British Government, thus it is not a sovereign body.
- Time Consuming
- Dominated by the member of Congress party.
- Lawyer- Politician and Hindus Domination.
- Elephant was adopted as the symbol(seal) of the Constituent Assembly.
- Prem Behari Narain Raizada was the calligrapher of the Indian Constitution.
- S.N. Mukerjee was the Secretary to the Constituent Assembly.
The term ‘preamble’ refers to the introduction or preface to the Constitution. An eminent jurist and constitutional expert, called the Preamble as the ‘identity card of the Constitution.’ The Preamble of India is based on the ‘Objective Resolution’, drafted and moved by Pandit Nehru, and adopted by the Constituent Assembly.
- Sovereign : It implies that India is neither a dependency nor a dominion of any other nation, but an independent state. Being a sovereign state, India can either acquire a foreign territory or cede a part of its territory in favor of a foreign state.
- Socialist : The India brand of socialism is a democratic socialism and not a communistic socialism, which involves the nationalization all means of production and distribution and the abolition of private property.
- Secular : The Indian Constitution embodies the positive concept of secularism i.e. all religions in our country have the same status and support from the state.
- Democratic : The term ‘democratic’ is used in the Preamble in the broader sense embracing not only political democracy but also social and economical democracy.
- Republic : It indicated that India has an elected head called the president. It means, vesting of political sovereignty in the people and absence of any privileged class.
- Justice : It embraces three distinct forms – social, economic and political, secured through various provisions of Fundamental Rights and Directive Principles.
- Liberty : It means the absence of restraints on the activities of individuals, and at the same time, providing opportunities for the development of individual personalities.
- Equality : It means the absence of special privileges to any section of the society, and the provision of adequate opportunities for all individuals without any discrimination. This provision embraces three dimensions of equality- civics, political and economic.
- Fraternity : It means sense of brotherhood. It promotes the feeling of fraternity by the system of single citizenship and with the ‘Fundamental Duties.’
Reference – ‘Indian Polity’ by M LaxmiKanth